We know this picture as our karyogram.
In each pair of chromosomes, one comes from the mother and one from the father.
All human chromosomes are made up of two arms, a short arm (p for petit) and a long arm (q), separated from each other by the centromere. At the end of the chromosomes are the telomeres.
In some chromosomes the p arm is so short that it can barely be seen. These are known as acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.
The first 22 pairs of chromosomes are homologous: they have the same structure, but that does not mean that they contain the same information. We call these body-defining or autosomal and they are numbered from largest to smallest.
The 23rd pair determines our gender: XY for a man, XX for a woman.